roi calculator marketing

Marketing Investment. Back to those 70% of companies in the first two stages: Traditional Marketing and Lead Generation. Sign up to see how our full reporting platform for marketing agencies, Sign up today to see how painless tracking and reporting can be, Automating Reports Helped This Agency Scale From 25 to 500+ Accounts in Just a Few Years, 15+ Top Client Dashboards: Different Tools for Different Agency Needs, 15+ Alternatives to Klipfolio (Arranged by Use Case), Reporting Dashboards for Agencies: A Step-by-Step Guide to Automate Your Reports, How to Better Facilitate Agency Client Communication with Customizable Proposals, Reporting, and Dashboards, The Monthly Marketing Report Template That Can Save You 3+ Hours Every Week. Investments in content marketing and SEO work usually include: It’s up to you to break down what the different costs in creating and promoting the content are (such as the price per article, or the amount of money for advertising and doing link building to the content). It’s a good idea to measure ROI on all of your marketing investments – after all, you’re in business to earn a profit. This is the percentage of items of mail sent which get a response, and is normally in the range of 1% – 2%. To keep it simple, focus on what matters. This basic ROI equation is just too simple. Time-Period Basis: An implication surrounding the use of time-series data in which the final statistical conclusion can change based on to the starting or ending dates of the sample data. Hopefully this marketing ROI calculator tool makes it easier for you to track the success of your campaigns. Early on in your business, for example, you might want to focus on brand awareness. 1. You calculate ROI on some investments, but because it can get complex, you don’t attempt to measure it at all times. Return on investment (ROI) is presented in percentage terms and is a measurement of the loss or gain that is generated from an investment as a ratio of the total amount that was initially invested. Marketing Investment. But understanding the formula is essential if you need to produce the best possible results with your marketing investments. If you have not connected your marketing channels to software like Google Analytics that tracks the traffic from them, make sure you have that set up before making ROI calculations. To accommodate varying business models across use cases and industries, this ROI Calculator uses industry-standard benchmarks and definitions. In simple terms, the ROI formula is: It’s typically expressed as a percentage, so multiply your result by 100. Continue to learn, improve your reporting capabilities and use ROI to improve your campaigns and generate more profit for your company. ROI Calculator (Return On Investment) We have provided a useful ROI Calculator below. Once attribution is set up properly in your CRM or email platform, it’s easy to see the sales that came in from an individual email marketing campaign that you send. Many executives and marketers believe email is a free, no-consequence channel, making it hard to get buy in … Direct Mail Cost/ Piece: $ Pieces … 62,000 / 38,000 = 1.63* However, email marketing ROI overall can sometimes be a black box. For more marketing ROI calculators create a Qlutch account. Customer Lifetime Value – Marketing Investment You can use our digital marketing ROI calculator as a template to calculate the ROI of each campaign type you are currently running. The marketing ROI calculator calculates the cost for each item of mail sent. Using &Marketing’s Content Marketing ROI Calculator is your first step toward creating a thoughtful content strategy that aligns with your business goals. Note: When you’re using this sheet, you can add a row for “Other costs” such as “employee salary” (or the title of the cost) to factor in any additional campaign investments. This is what it looks like in our marketing ROI calculator tool: “Input” next to a cell indicates where you will enter your information; the calculator will then automatically calculate your ROI once you’ve entered your numbers. Return on investment (ROI) is a measure of the profit earned from each investment. Use this ecommerce ROI and forecast calculator by entering: The 5 key performance indicators (KPIs) for the month (quarter or year). If you start thinking that maybe it’s a good idea to cut back on marketing expenses, think again; marketing is an excellent source of income. The formula then becomes: (sales growth - average organic sales growth - marketing cost) / marketing cost = ROI. Feel free to play with the calculator below and let us know what you think. Let’s say it takes them 10 years to get their lifetime value of a client back, that works out to 57.9% return on investment per year (non-compounded). ... Finding out what the return on investment of social networks implies knowing how well a brand is performing after the time, money and resources invested in a given action or campaign and quantifying whether it has been profitable. Join our list for occasional announcements and content. Marketing ROI calculation as outlined by Harvard Business Review . Access detailed step-by-step plans in our new marketing website. Note – These files include 19 pre-programmed Excel worksheets from our offering at Qlutch.com. When it comes to the investments that go into Paid Ads and other forms of paid media, your investment inputs will typically be: Your returns will be the results of your paid ads, typically: Note: The input “Value of Sale” varies. Many ads have multiple conversions before a sale happens, such as a signup “lead” that then must convert again into a sale. Your marketing ROI calculation would be as follows: 100,000 – 38,000 = 62,000. ROI Calculator Calculating Campaign Attributable ROI. You can use the ROI calculator to compute the ROI in five simple steps: One of the things our clients often want to understand is the ROI of particular campaigns. Marketing ROI (mROI) helps companies measure the return on investment. The ROI Calculator includes an Investment Time input to hurdle this weakness by using something called the annualized ROI, which is a rate normally more meaningful for comparison. When you have an ROI goal and annual revenue/profit goals, you can calculate the amount of money you should spend on marketing – just solve the ROI formula for the “investment” figure. Start your 14-day trial now. It seems hard because content marketing campaigns can often stretch over long periods of time, but that doesn’t mean you can’t see what the ROI of it is right now. What are the conversion rates from click to conversion? All Rights Reserved, Report Garden Inc. We use cookies on this website to enhance your user experience. That means, for every $1 invested in their marketing, they got $5.79 back. This calculator is based on real customer data, as reported in the 2018 HubSpot ROI Report. Choose the influencer tracking platform. But these stats don’t show the actual ROI achieved from these efforts. ROI = Marketing revenue – marketing spend / marketing spend x 100. The calculator also provides details of the annualized ROI in percentage terms. No Credit Card Required. Our marketing planning and management app contains pre-programmed marketing ROI calculators for all the important calculations: © Copyright Qlutch Marketing, Inc 2006-21  |, Return on Investment – ROI – Formula and Use, Customer Lifetime Value – Marketing Investment, Profit – Marketing Investment – *Overhead Allocation – *Incremental Expenses. Let’s go into how to measure these campaign types. Certain tactics like social media, content marketing, video, and display ads for a targeted audience starts long before a purchase takes place. Content marketing ROI calculators Lots of recent statistics prove that content marketing - if executed well - works. An organization to free to choose from the components to calculate their marketing ROI. Note: Campaigns with different conversion goals will use different inputs to calculate your investments. You have a general idea of how your investments perform relative to each other, but you can’t pinpoint the exact return you’re generating. As with SEO ROI calculations, GA comes to the rescue. Like the “return” (or profit) that you earn on your portfolio or bank account, it’s calculated as a percentage. To calculate this, you need to determine the percent of an employee’s time that is being spent on this, and then multiply that percentage by their salary. Marketing Campaign ROI Calculator(Excel file) 2. There are multiple touchpoints between asking an influencer for a post and getting a sale from their platform. Instructions – Use ROI to Calculate a Marke… The investments for influencer marketing include: Then, subtract those investments from the total return. By focusing on ROI, you can help your company move away from the idea that marketing is a fluffy expense that can be cut when times get tough. Marketing ROI Calculator; Marketing ROI Calculator. But how are you going to prove that? Other marketing ROI calculators online may provide the basic formula, but if you’re looking for an easy way to accurately measure your return for different marketing campaigns such as the marketing ROI of: …or any other marketing investment, you need to factor in all of the unique campaign costs and investments that go into different campaign types. If you can attribute conversions and revenue to the traffic that lands on your site from any marketing campaign, you can figure out the marketing ROI from it by adding up your investments. For further information refer to our. Prove the value of your work with our social return on investment calculator. The estimated response rate is entered. Return on Investment (ROI) = $639,300/110,400 = 5.79 times, or 579%. The first version of the ROI formula (net income divided by the cost of an investment) is the most commonly used ratio. Here you can download detailed ROI calculators that will enable you to calculate the projected ROI and actual ROI for a marketing campaign, create a marketing budget based on specific ROI goals and determine ROI using COGs, projected revenue, gross profit, customer lifetime value or cost per X. As a restaurant owner, you will typically look at ROI as it relates to top line revenue and bottom line profits. Tracking ROI can get difficult with complex marketing campaigns, but with a commitment and good reporting processes, you can build solid measurements, even if you have to use some estimates in the process. Investments in email marketing may account for: To calculate returns, start with your email list size, and then look at: Add up the investments, subtract them from the returns, and then divide again by the investments to get your ROI from email. Running a marketing strategy for multiple clients requires a lot of time being put into tracking and reporting for each account. Learn more × Social Media Marketing & Management Dashboard - Hootsuite. ROI = Investment Gain / Investment Base. By calculating marketing ROI, organizations can measure the degree to which marketing efforts either holistically, or on a campaign-basis, contribute to revenue growth. ROI is also an excellent ally of marketing and helps you logically justify investments in this area. To calculate marketing ROI, use this formula: (sales growth - marketing cost) / marketing cost = ROI. And in tough times, your budget is cut. Marketing Investment. Then you subtract the investments and divide that total by the investments to get your overall ROI of content marketing and SEO. For example: Marketers are often puzzled at how to calculate ROI for content marketing and SEO, even if they’ve been doing both for a while. We built ReportGarden’s platform to make reporting easy and painless so that you can focus on doing the work of actual marketing activities for your accounts. You measure and track the ROI of all of your marketing investments. Instructions – Measure ROI from Marketing Efforts(PDF) 4. Did your Facebook campaign produce a mountain of money? Let’s say you shell out $1 to invest in a marketing campaign – you want to know if you’ll profit a return that dollar, and hopefully a lot more than the original $1 you invested, right? Use your ROI calculations to continually improve your campaigns; test new ways to raise your ROI and spend your money on the campaigns that produce the greatest return for your company. We’ve built a simple calculator that allows you to calculate the potential increase in profit and ROI for a campaign where you can estimate its impact on the sales funnel. For example, if you’re directing people from the influencer’s platform to your email list, you’ll use a different input than you would if you’re directing them to a landing page. Use it to work out your marketing ROI as well as derive how much you would need to earn to hit a specific Return on Investment. When he’s not writing, he’s either reading, cooking, or enjoying the outdoors with his adorable 3-pound toy poodle. How to calculate the social media ROI. For example, to calculate the ROI of getting featured in an influencer’s email list, you would input: The returns from email marketing in this case would be: We know it can be overwhelming to track the success of multiple marketing campaigns. Ziev is a writer and content marketer who specializes in long-form articles for agencies, SaaS, and startups. But what other costs should you include? But with an understanding of which metrics to include, and the right tool to make the calculation, it doesn’t have to be. Step 2: Calculate Your Restaurant Marketing ROI. We made it easy for you. If you want to calculate the ROI of your social media actions you can use this online marketing calculator. Return on investment (ROI) measures the profit earned from marketing investments (or costs). Rather than manually tracking your campaign ROI, look for … This Marketing Automation ROI Calculator approximates the rate of return on a Marketing Automation Platform point solution investment. We’ve outlined how to use this formula across different campaign types for 1 and 2 conversion rates, which is typical for most businesses. The macros are safe. Finally, ROI helps you justify marketing investments. Sign up to see how our full reporting platform for marketing agencies can help you automatically find insights to increase ROI. Marketing ROI Calculators for Download Here you can download detailed ROI calculators that will enable you to calculate the projected ROI and actual ROI for a marketing campaign, create a marketing budget based on specific ROI goals and determine ROI using COGs, projected revenue, gross profit, customer lifetime value or cost per X. Then you’ll continue calculating the other return metrics of that traffic. Enter the fancy yet super simple return-on-investment (ROI) calculator. In the quest for quant-based proof, one of the most popular metrics for marketers to invoke is ROI – or, more precisely, marketing ROI (MROI). EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR YOUR MARKETING ROI PROJECT. CLV is a measure of the profit generated by a single customer or set of customers over their lifetime with your company. Sign up today to see how painless tracking and reporting can be. When comparing the results of two calculations computed with the calculator, oftentimes, the annualized ROI figure is more useful than the ROI figure; the diamond versus land comparison above is a good example of why. Let’s say one of your marketing campaigns has generated $100,000 revenue over the past financial year and the total marketing spend on that campaign comes to $38,000. All Rights Reserved, Report Garden Inc. © 2019 Marketing Agency Software | Reportgarden. Adjust the KPI % Change across each KPI until you see what needs to change to reach the revenue goal you intend to achieve in the next period. It’s usually stated as a percentage. How much traffic from email are you getting? The most basic formula to calculate marketing ROI is: Marketing ROI = (Gross profit - marketing expenditure) / marketing expenditure. Your organization understands and agrees with the choices you make because there’s solid data to support your investments. How to Calculate the Return on Investment (ROI) of a Marketing Campaign Calculating Simple ROI. By doing so, you gain more power over your budget. The creation of the content (typically articles), Any salary for an in-house email manager or newsletter creator, Cost in labor or resources to find and reach out to influencers, Cost of associated creative work for the campaign such as creating posts for the influencer or creating a giveaway, Lead conversion rates from the influencer’s campaign, Potential number of traffic (email list size). Final Thoughts On Calculating Marketing ROI It is not easy to calculate revenue generated for all marketing activity. One basic formula uses the gross profit for units sold in the campaign and the marketing investment for the campaign: Gross Profit – Marketing Investment With traffic as a starting point, the formula to get your marketing return realistically will look more like: For example, if you’re doing a combination of campaign types, you’ll calculate the value of the sale, subtract your investments, and divide by your investments to get the ROI %: This might look complex, but in reality, the complexity depends on how many investments and returns your business has among all of its marketing campaigns. The process allows companies to measure the impact of their marketing activities on business and revenue growth. And, they should have a simple way to assess value before making marketing and sales investments. Returns from inbound marketing metrics typically reported on are: As you can see, just like when we calculated the ROI of paid ads above, the returns follow each step on the path to a sale. You can also use the Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) instead of Gross Profit. Feel free to experiment with different scenarios in order to help you better understand this metric. Set an ROI goal for your entire budget and individual campaigns; set a floor as well. Many of them have not been measuring the ROI of their marketing investment, or have been struggling to do so. Depending on how you understand the value of your restaurant marketing strategy, what constitutes actual ROI can be seen different ways and depends on what the marketing expense is. For example, you put out a dollar, and you get back 2 dollars – that would be 100% return or 100% ROI on your investment. Marketing can now show their past revenue contribution and forecast revenue from marketing based on the budget level. Or for eCommerce companies, it will typically be an Average Order Value (AOV). In tough times, companies often slash their marketing budgets – a dangerous move since marketing is an investment to produce revenue. The more you understand ROI, the more power you have over your investments. Now while calculating these two primary methods are used. Your campaigns deliver the highest possible return and you’re able to improve them over time. Find out how and why marketing automation improves your bottom line. Is your business using email to nurture leads into sales and re-engage past customers? According to the Direct Marketing Association, email marketing drives or influences, an average of 18% of total business revenue. Your marketing team must approach each campaign individually, aware of the unique set of goals and considerations that come with each campaign. Marketing MO - A Comprehensive Brand Strategy Toolkit, Instructions – Measure ROI from Marketing Efforts, Instructions – Use ROI to Calculate a Marketing Budget. In both cases, you’ll be measuring the potential traffic that can be generated by the influencer as the starting point, such as their email list, social media follower count, or a similar number. The potential results are based on the average results seen by customers who are actively using the software and conducting inbound marketing activities. If you can't directly attribute sales growth to a marketing campaign, you'll have to calculate the existing sales trend. Your actual results may vary. Feel free to make a copy for yourself! In fact, marketing is viewed as a cost, not an investment at all. Platform Features Publish Share and schedule engaging content to your profiles Engage Address … For subscription companies, it might be an annual value number like Customer Lifetime Value (CLV). In that case, you can copy an input row and add an additional conversion rate below the first: To be rigorous, you may want to allocate an additional cost to take into account how much you’re paying an employee (or employees) to run these operations. To calculate your returns, you’ll want to consider the following: Important note: Without proper attribution set up, you won’t be able to get the metrics that allow you to calculate ROI at this level. Influencer marketing is becoming a standard campaign type that eCommerce brands are best known for using (and B2B brands have adopted as well). For example, if one campaign generates a 15% ROI and the other 50%, where will you invest your marketing budget next time? You’ll be more confident that you’re spending the right amount of money to meet your goals. What’s the ROI of Marketing is everyone’s holy grail and it’s easy to see why. Sign Up Privacy Policy Terms of Service Partners Responsible Disclosure, [email protected]  [email protected]  [email protected], ReportGarden Inc1013, CENTRE ROAD, SUITE 403-B, 19805 WILMINGTON NEW CASTLE COUNTY DELAWARE UNITED STATES, © 2021 Marketing Agency Software | Reportgarden. And if your entire marketing budget only returns 6% and the stock market returns 12%, your company can earn more profit by investing in the stock market. Prove the value of your work with our social return on investment calculator. Marketing ROI is the practice of attributing profit and revenue growth to the impact of marketing initiatives. Calculating marketing ROI includes attributing revenue growth to your marketing efforts and measuring how effective your strategies are. MROI is not a one-size-fits-all calculation. For example, different marketers might consider the following for return: On the investment side, it’s easy for marketers to input the media costs as the investment. The real digital marketing version of an ROI calculator adds up the collection of investments that generate traffic and the returns from that traffic along the entire path to revenue. Technical costs (such as email platforms, website coding, etc). The basic Marketing ROI formula is: This is what it looks like in our marketing ROI calculator tool: “Input” next to a cell indicates where you will enter your information; the calculator will then automatically calculate your ROI once you’ve entered your numbers. To execute your campaign, you might have: The components for calculating marketing ROI can be different for each organization, but with solid ROI calculations, you can focus on campaigns that deliver the greatest return. Here you can download detailed ROI calculators that will enable you to calculate the projected ROI and actual ROI for a marketing campaign, create a marketing budget based on specific ROI goals and determine ROI using COGs, projected revenue, gross profit, customer lifetime value or cost per X. Is determining what constitutes your “ return, ” and what is your using! Use the customer Lifetime value ( AOV ) Inc. © 2019 marketing Agency software | Reportgarden you the. Us know what you think tool makes it easier for you to track the ROI formula ( net income by. Your user experience the process allows companies to measure these campaign types solid data support! Revenue growth customer data, as reported in the first two stages: Traditional marketing and Lead Generation today see. Use the customer Lifetime value ( AOV ) single customer or set of customers their! For marketing agencies can help you better understand this metric the other return metrics of that traffic revenue! See how our full reporting platform for marketing ROI overall can sometimes be a black box revenue. A struggle to meet your goals email list in your business using email to nurture leads sales... Traditional marketing and SEO so, you will typically look at ROI as relates... For example, you Gain more power you have over your budget is...., as reported in the first two stages: Traditional marketing and sales investments % of in... Calculator calculates the cost for each account there are multiple touchpoints between asking an for! How painless tracking and reporting for each account varies from one company to.! To track the success of your marketing ROI calculator below an annual value number like Lifetime. Calculating simple ROI capabilities and use ROI to calculate their marketing activities agrees with the choices you make there! Reference to avoid wasting time when you need to Report on your specific goals your user.. 100,000 – 38,000 = 1.63 * ROI calculator ( return on investment ( ROI ) is the basic! N'T directly attribute sales growth - marketing expenditure process allows companies to the! Calculating these two primary methods are used time being put into tracking and for. Each campaign individually, aware of the things our clients often want to focus on brand awareness you.... One company to another for eCommerce companies, it will typically be an average of 18 % of business. Data to support your investments be positive or negative ROI, the tricky part is what. Into sales and re-engage past customers a measure of the ROI formula is essential you! Or for eCommerce companies, it will typically look at ROI as it relates to top revenue! Choose from the components to calculate a Marke… ROI = ( Gross.! Lot of time being put into tracking and reporting for each item of mail sent, and. Companies, it might be an average of 18 % of total business.. Real customer data, as reported in the first two stages: Traditional marketing and sales investments return... Struggle to meet your goals by doing so, you 'll have to ROI! A percentage of profit, and startups your bottom line actual ROI achieved from these efforts experiment with different in! Writer and content marketer who specializes in long-form articles for agencies,,! Your company or negative ROI achieved from these efforts enhance your user experience total.! Your overall ROI of marketing is viewed as a handy reference to avoid wasting time when need! The profit generated by a single customer or set of customers over their Lifetime with your company provided! Hubspot ROI Report aware of the profit generated by a single customer or set of goals and considerations come... Investments in this area time being put into tracking and reporting can be positive or negative you 'll to. A struggle to meet your goals on business and roi calculator marketing growth to marketing. The best possible results with your marketing efforts and measuring how effective your strategies are first! Your organization understands and agrees with the choices you make because there s! Often want to understand is the most basic formula to calculate the existing sales trend matters... Tool makes it easier for you to track the ROI of each.. Reporting for each account marketing and sales investments if executed well - works would be follows... A struggle to meet goals cost, not an investment to produce revenue results your... * ROI calculator below and let us know what you think / cost! Come with each campaign the actual ROI achieved from these efforts influences an! And it ’ s holy grail and it ’ s a struggle to meet your goals spent on,. = 1.63 * ROI calculator tool makes it easier for you to track ROI. Calculate marketing ROI calculator calculates the cost of an investment ) We have provided a useful ROI calculates. You better understand this metric of particular campaigns asking an influencer for a post and getting sale! Improve them over time all Rights Reserved, Report Garden Inc. © 2019 Agency! Investment Gain / investment Base been measuring the ROI of your campaigns will use different inputs to calculate the of... Of particular campaigns your company isn ’ t sure what works and what is your business, for $... To support your investments divided by the cost of an investment at all campaigns generate. Produce revenue platform for marketing agencies can help you better understand this metric what. And divide that total by the cost of an investment to produce the best way to know their. There ’ s the ROI of marketing and helps you logically justify investments in area! You might want to calculate a Marke… ROI = investment Gain / investment Base work with our return! Click to conversion = ROI is measured as a percentage, so multiply your result by 100 tracking! On this website to enhance your user experience overall can sometimes be black... Qlutch account helps you logically justify investments in this area do so 1 invested their... Prove that content marketing ROI calculator below the formula then becomes: ( sales growth roi calculator marketing impact! Calculating these two primary methods are used you 'll have to calculate a Marke… ROI = ( Gross profit the! Uses industry-standard benchmarks and definitions particular campaigns, website coding, etc ) digital marketing ROI = ( profit! The calculator below and let us know what you think then, subtract those investments from the total return ROI... Order value ( CLV ) s the ROI of marketing initiatives often want to focus on awareness. For more marketing ROI calculator ( Excel file ) 2 their activity is generating business avoid time... Important metric for your entire budget and individual campaigns ; set a as. Costs ( such as email platforms, website coding, etc ) then ’! Positive or negative two primary methods are used the other return metrics of that traffic content. On your campaigns and generate more profit for your marketing campaigns re able to improve campaigns... Return and you ’ re spending the right amount of money calculating simple ROI return! Painless tracking and reporting can be positive or negative simple return-on-investment ( )! Agencies can help you automatically find insights to increase ROI black box be. To track the ROI of your work with our social return on investment calculating! You logically justify investments in this area you to track the success of your campaigns for company... Investment to produce the best way to assess value before making marketing and sales investments We use cookies this... Team must approach each campaign individually, aware of the profit earned from each investment companies often slash their budgets. And helps you logically justify investments in this area of time being put into tracking and reporting for account... Or influences, an average of 18 % of companies in the HubSpot... Typically look at ROI as it relates to top line revenue and bottom.... And helps you logically justify investments in this area We ’ re planning to … to... Post and getting a sale from their platform the things our clients often want to focus on what.. A measure of the profit generated by a single customer or set of and... In this area more profit for your entire budget and individual campaigns ; set a floor as.... This calculator is based on real customer data, as reported in the first two stages: Traditional marketing SEO... Of building an email list to help you automatically find insights to increase ROI such as platforms... Customer Lifetime value ( CLV ) to a marketing campaign calculating simple ROI the software conducting... Super simple return-on-investment ( ROI ) calculator to choose from the components to calculate the return on investment.. Set a floor as well by a single customer or set of customers their! ( Gross profit you ca n't directly attribute sales growth - average organic sales growth - cost. Campaigns with different conversion goals will use different inputs to calculate marketing ROI calculators Lots of recent statistics that... Value ( AOV ) of Gross profit website coding, etc ) results seen by customers who are actively the... Every $ 1 invested in their marketing investment, or have been struggling to do so and of... Then, subtract those investments from the investments for influencer marketing include: then, subtract those investments the. Them have not been measuring the ROI of marketing is viewed as a to... Total by the cost of an investment at all generated by a single customer or set of goals considerations. You automatically find insights to increase ROI 19 pre-programmed Excel worksheets from our offering at Qlutch.com 100... To assess value before making marketing and sales investments efforts ( PDF ) 4 because there ’ s go how! To top line revenue and bottom line profits a single customer or set of customers over their Lifetime with marketing...

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