social media intensity scale

Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (in press). Considering the dramatically increasing prevalence of social networking use among adolescents (90% prevalence in our sample), the development of the SNAIS would facilitate the progression of related studies investigating the effects of social networking use on psychosocial well-being among adolescents. this measure indicate a higher risk for disordered eating. Facebook Intensity Scale (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007). Internal reliability based on the entire sample was acceptable for the SNAIS (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90, 0.60, and 0.89 for the SFUI, EFUI, and SNAIS, respectively). Moreover, Jenkins-Guarnieri, et al (2013) standardized a scale on online social media use that assesses the daily routines of users, combination of the social behavior, along with the emotional connection and importance of to this use, but this scale is not suitable to measure our construct. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. The study appeared in Online Information Review. The Facebook Intensity Scale is a tool used to measure Facebook usage, frequency, and duration. The intensity of social media use as a general source of information has been measured by adapting the scale of Llodrà-Riera et al. Several such scales exist but they have some serious limitations. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Data obtained from 910 (89.7%) students, who were social networking users, were used for data analysis. The findings suggested that SNAIS could successfully discriminate intensive users from infrequent users. The participants performed online social networking mainly via personal computers (62.1%) and smartphones (24.0%). Moreover, the results of the one-way ANOVA analysis showed that those who reported higher levels of duration of social networking use, number of days per week on average using social networking, amount of time spent on social networking in a typical day, and number of social networking friends, scored significantly higher in the SNAIS and its two subscales (all p<0.001, Table 6). [3] Of these “netizens”, 48.8% were social media users, while 28.8% of the social media users were between 10–19 years old (2012). Social media measurement guide - what, why, how - tools, free templates, download simulated social media reports, and more. We did not try to get the informed consent from parents or caregivers of the potential students considering that the survey was conducted in schools. The investigators constructed the scale specifically for use among emerging adults, though its items may also be applicable to other age groups. The factor structure of SNAIS was also clearly established. It assessed social networking use intensity for specific functions, in which two constructs (social function and entertainment) emerged. the number of Facebook friends and the amount of time spent on Facebook in a typical day). We have an agreement with the schools that data will not be used for non-research purpose, and release of the data to any other parties requires their approval. One widely used scale that No, Is the Subject Area "Facebook" applicable to this article? We suggest both subscales to be used together in the future, as nowadays social interactions and entertainment are not mutually exclusive. Future revision of the scale may modify some items of EFUI to improve its internal reliability. Pearson correlation coefficients between the items and the Overall scale, between the items and their corresponding subscales, and between the items and the other subscales of the SNAIS were calculated for the item analysis. In the first subsample, the factor structure of the SNAIS was extracted by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components extraction method and varimax rotation methods. As it was developed to assess social networking use intensity, it does not include other constructs such as emotional attachment. The names of the two schools are Li Cheng junior middle school (Liao ZC, Mobile: 0086-13798068286) and Shi Jing junior middle school (Su JQ, Mobile: 0086-13600082844). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t001. The test-retest findings demonstrated that the SNAIS and its two subscales were stable over time. No ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. The two subscales that emerged from the SNAIS have strong practical implications and can be used to understand various consequences of SNUI. Similarly, the word “Facebook” was replaced by “online social networking” in the current study, and a translation and back-translation process was used. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper. To examine the factor structure of the SNAIS, the sample was randomly split into two subsamples of equal size. Recent . AAIDD helps Oregon in successfully completing a pilot project using SIS. means, standard deviation, and percentage) were presented when appropriate. Social networking addiction was measured by adapting items of the Facebook Addiction Scale, [28] which included eight items describing addictive symptoms: cognitive and behavioral salience, conflict with other activities, euphoria, loss of control, withdrawal, and relapse and reinstatement. It has acceptable psychometric properties and is easy to be self-administered by junior middle school students. An anonymous structured questionnaire was self-administered by the participants in the absence of teachers and in classroom settings, supervised by a well-trained field-worker of our research team. “This study focused on the impact of misinformation on social networking sites,” the co-authors wrote in their findings. The SNAIS that was developed in the present study provided a new angle to measure online social networking use intensity as compared to those previous scales. Participants who provided five or more “yes” answers were classified as an Internet addiction case. (2016) Validation of the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale among Junior Middle School Students in China. On the days they reported using social networking, 49.7% spent on average more than 30 minutes per day for social networking. There were a total of 11-grade 7 classes, 11-grade 8 classes, and 5-grade 9 classes. Definition of Social Media Intensity: The extent to which a person is actively engaged in social networking activities. In sum, the study developed and evaluated an instrument for assessing extensive functions of social networking use intensity. Yes The literature has suggested that many adolescents use online social networking mainly for interactions with their “offline friends”. Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. In the present study, SNUI is defined as self-reported frequency of using multiple types of online social networking activities through multiple types of platforms in the last month. Floor and ceiling effects were considered present if more than 15% of respondents possessed the minimum or maximum score of the SNAIS. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t002. It is warranted to develop a more comprehensive tool to assess intensity of online social networking use, considering various types of online social networking activities, functions and platforms. [29,30] The scale has commonly been used in Chinese student populations and shown acceptable validity and reliability. Over the last ten years, social media has become an integral facet of modern society. The standardized path estimates were above 0.48 (ranged from 0.48~0.76) (Table 2). Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., Lampe, C. The Facebook Intensity scale is used to measure Facebook usage beyond simple measures of frequency and duration, incorporating emotional connectedness to the site and its integration into individuals’ daily activities. The study and corresponding consent procedure was approved by the Survey and Behavioral Research Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t005. Moreover, based on the results of one-way ANOVA, individuals who reported longer duration use, more frequent use, longer time spent in a typical day, and having more friends on online social networking were found to have higher scores of SNAIS and its two subscales as compared to those in the corresponding lower categories. In order to maximally ensure confidentiality and protect participants from personal information disclosure, the survey applied anonymous approach, and the data analyzed anonymously. Duration of social networking use, number of days per week on average using social networking, amount of time per day on average spent on social networking, and number of social networking friends were all positively correlated with the SFUI (Spearman r = 0.26 to 0.38, all p<0.001), EFUI (Spearman r = 0.27 to 0.30, all p<0.001), and SNAIS (Spearman r = 0.30 to 0.40, all p<0.001) (Table 5). The correlation coefficients between each item and the overall scale ranged from 0.43 to 0.72 (all p<0.001), while all correlation coefficients between the items and their corresponding subscale ranged from 0.64 to 0.77 (all p<0.001). In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of this scale showed a one-factor solution that explained 51.2% of the total variance, with high factor loadings ranging from 0.64 to 0.77. Search for: Tweets by @reyjunco. duration of social networking use, number of days per week using social networking on average, time spent on social networking on a typical day, and number of social networking friends). Includes free, interactive social media checklist.. + 1 646 712 9441 Client Login Contact Us Alerts / Search. No, Is the Subject Area "Internet" applicable to this article? Yes Furthermore, there were no noticeable ceiling or floor effects. here. No incentive was given to the students. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. Book; Search. [17] Third, those measures failed to capture the intensity of the full range of online activities. Firstly, the EFUI subscale gave acceptable but relatively low internal (α = 0.60) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.67), as compared to that of the SFUI subscale. Furthermore, the results showed that the EFUI had a slightly higher correlation with Internet addiction as compared with that of the SFUI. Multi-stage cluster sampling may be a better study design, and may require a larger sample size; future studies should use this design. Its application may catalyze the development of relevant research on the impact of social networking use among adolescents in China and beyond. This study aims to examine the association between the influence of FoMO on the usage intensity of Social Media by adolescents. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695, Editor: MariaPaz Espinosa, University of the Basque Country, SPAIN, Received: June 8, 2015; Accepted: October 17, 2016; Published: October 31, 2016. Given the large scale of use of social media, there is a lack of research analysing the influence of multiple social media on brand equity (Schivinski and Dabrowski, 2015; Keller, 2016; Gürhan-Canli et al., 2016). Social Media Use Integration Scale (SMUIS) The SMUIS (Jenkins-Guarnieri et al., 2013) was constructed to measure engaged use of social media, or “the degree to which social media is integrated into the social behavior and daily routines of users, and the importance of and emotional connection to this use” (p. 39). We developed a new tool, the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS), which can be used to assess SNUI among Chinese junior middle school students. The top three purposes for using online social networking were to keep in contact with old friends (73.3%), entertainment (48.4%), and to make new friends (39.8%). [17] The Facebook Intensity Scale was developed to measure Facebook usage by incorporating both emotional connectedness to the site and its integration into one’s daily activities. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695, http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/P020140305346585959798.pdf, http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/sqbg/201302/P020130219611651054576.pdf, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537516.pdf, http://www.cnnic.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/sqbg/201209/P020120903424883977032.pdf, http://datagzstatsgovcn/gzStat1/chaxun/njsjjsp. using social media is related to increased depression. The single item related to intensity of use is inadequate and no testing of psychometric properties such as factor structure and internal reliability was possible. Such an observation needs to be confirmed in the future research. with three items, based on the intensity of interaction with the brand (how much content about the tourist destination did you see on social media? These suggested activities overlapped with the current 14 items (see Table 1). Answers obtained included “chatting with strangers”, “online shopping”, and “reading/searching materials”. The scale measures the intensity of Instagram use based on the response to seven items, with a four-level Likert scale response mode (1 = Strongly disagree; 4 = Strongly agree). Guangzhou), and moreover, grade 9 students of one of the two schools were not invited to participate in the study due to school restriction. Furthermore, 8.8% of the participants were classified as having Internet addiction (12.0% for males and 4.6% for females, χ2 = 13.84, df = 1; p<0.001) (Table 1). The growing importance of social media and research interest in the field makes it imperative to consider the measures used to assess social networking site (SNS) use. Introduction. Search for: Tweets by @reyjunco. [6] However, the directions of the associations between intensity of social networking use and health outcomes are inconsistent. All items were on a 5-point Likert-type scale anchored by “Strongly Disagree” and “Strongly Agree.” A sample item is “I’m proud to tell people I’m on … [33] Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, while test-retest reliability was evaluated by Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Table 1. In the present study, the word “Facebook” was replaced by “online social networking” for assessing extent of emotional connection. Share. The Facebook Intensity Scale has seen prolific use since its development; however, it has been criticized by some scholars. Facebook). The 8-item Social Media Intensity Scale measures the intensity of one’s use by assessing the strength of their emotional attachment to their social media (Ellison et al., 2007). Of the 910 participants, 44.4%, 40.2% and 15.4% were 7th, 8th and 9th grade students, respectively and 47.4% came from the urban school. Except for Item 8 and Item 14, item means were close to the middle of the range. Firstly, data was acquired by self-reporting collection method, reporting bias might exist although the study was highly anonymous. Yes On social media, the intensity of a user’s preoccupation with a social networking site like Facebook is strongly correlated with trust in the social platform, according to North Carolina State University. Internet addiction was measured by the 8-item Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. The statistical significant level was 0.05. It measures the degree to which the Internet affects different aspects of one’s daily life. It is thought that the school principals were responsible for students during the school time, and their informed consent would be enough on behalf of junior middle school students for the school-based study. The SFUI showed slightly stronger correlations with emotional connection (Pearson r = 0.49, p<0.001) and social networking addiction (Pearson r = 0.32, p<0.001), as compared to those of the EFUI (Pearson r = 0.40 and 0.25, respectively, p<0.001). For example, while some studies suggested that social networking use was associated with negative outcomes such as internalizing problems, [7] loneliness, [8] depression, and low self-esteem among adolescents,[9,10] others reported that online social networking use reduced loneliness [11] and was negatively associated with subjective well-being. The following goodness of fit statistics and cutoff criteria were used to evaluate the factor structure model in the CFA: [34–36] χ2/df ratio<5.00, both Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) and Comparative Fit Index (CFI) >0.95, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) <0.08. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. All students understood the items well and found the questions not difficult to answer. The scale showed good internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.73). The second 4-item factor explained an additional 8.7% of the total variance, and was named the “Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI)” subscale. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. No, Is the Subject Area "Psychometrics" applicable to this article? The scores of the SNAIS and its two subscales were positively correlated with the scales of emotional connection to social networking and social networking addiction. New scale has been developed to measure the time use on the SNSs.The scale has good psychometric properties.The scale is very simple to use and administer. The authors would like to give great appreciation to all participants and schools. Division of Behavioral Health and Health Promotion, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, [12] Furthermore, studies conducted among college students found no significant association between amount of time spent on social networking and depression.[13,14]. Specifically, the SMIS adaptation to the Instagram social network was applied . [3,4] Furthermore, previous studies conducted in China have reported prevalence of Internet addiction ranging from 2.4% to 22.9% among adolescents. The benefits of Facebook ‘‘friends:’’ Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Previous research has indicated that the effects of Internet use on psychosocial well-being was partially dependent on the nature of Internet use. e0165695. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t006. The survey was conducted in October of 2013 in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong province located in southern China. The SNAIS is an easily self-administered scale with good psychometric properties. Background Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents’ daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents’ well-being. [31,32] In our sample, the exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution for this scale, explaining 37.8% of the total variance, and the factor loadings ranged from 0.46 to 0.69. Detailed Description. information-seeking, games, shopping) did not necessarily correlate strongly with each other. 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