# ggplot y axis scale

The date_breaks argument allows you to position breaks by date units (years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, and seconds). Note that breaks_extended() treats n as a suggestion rather than a strict constraint. This ensures that the data does not overlap the axes, which is usually (but not always) desirable. This is the twelfth post in the series Elegant Data Visualization with ggplot2. The scales package provides a number of tools that will automatically construct label functions for you. Every continuous scale takes a trans argument, allowing the use of a variety of transformations: The transformation is carried out by a “transformer”, which describes the transformation, its inverse, and how to draw the labels. But limits also apply to scales that have legends, like colour, size, and shape, and these limits are particularly important if you want colours to be consistent across multiple plots. You may also find the lubridate package helpful to manipulate date/time data.33. Customize a discrete axis The functions scale_x_discrete () and scale_y_discrete () are used to customize discrete x and y axis, respectively. As the left plot below illustrates, this is an improvement but is still rather cluttered. An example using a fill scale is shown below: On the left the default fill colours are shown, ranging from dark blue to light blue. Note that, these tick marks make sense only for base 10. ToothGrowth data is used in the following examples : Make sure that dose column is converted as a factor using the above R script. An other possibility is the function scale_x_log10 () and scale_y_log10 (), which transform, respectively, the x and y axis scales into a log scale: base 10. Try making these modifications: Represent weight on the log10 scale; see scale_y_log10(). How to create a dot plot using ggplot2 in R? What label function allows you to create mathematical expressions? I’d be very grateful if you’d help it spread by emailing it to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter, Facebook or Linked In. The default… Cartesian coordinates. Some of the more useful examples for numeric data include: A few examples are shown below to illustrate how these functions are used: You can suppress labels with labels = NULL. This can be done easily using the ggplot2 functions scale_x_continuous () and scale_y_continuous (), which make it possible to set log2 or log10 axis scale. Used as the axis or legend title. Transform a ggplot2 axis to a percentage scale When plotting a variable whose unit of measure is percent it’s best practice to have the axis labels contain the percentage sign (%). Note that many transformation functions are available using the scales package : log10_trans(), sqrt_trans(), etc. The Animals data sets, from the package MASS, are used : The function annotation_logticks() can be used as follow : Note that, default log ticks are on bottom and left. Have a look at the following R syntax and the resulting graphic: + 10 )) How to plot values with log scales on x and y axis or on a single axis in R? so that the legend and axes match, without using faceting! It controls the display of the labels using the same formatting strings as in strptime() and format(). ggplot2 package ; Scatterplot ; Change axis ; Scatter plot with fitted values ; Add information to the graph ; Rename x-axis and y-axis ; Control the scales However, it is sometimes necessary to maintain consistency across multiple plots, which has the often-undesirable property of causing each plot to set scale limits independently: Each plot makes sense on its own, but visual comparison between the two is difficult. The, Note that many transformation functions are available using the. In the second plot, the major and minor beaks follow slightly different patterns: the minor breaks are always spaced 7 days apart but the major breaks are 1 month apart. The appearance of the geom will be the same, but the tick labels will be different. #> Warning: Removed 2 rows containing missing values (geom_point). For changing x or y axis limits without dropping data observations, see coord_cartesian(). #> [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30, #> [13] 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600, #> [25] 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000, # convert from fuel economy to fuel consumption, #> [1] "1900-01-01" "1925-01-01" "1950-01-01" "1975-01-01" "2000-01-01". Guide functions exist mostly to control plot legends, but—as legends and axes are both kinds of guide—ggplot2 also supplies a guide_axis() function for axes. In this R tutorial, I’ll show two examples for the formatting of axis numbers in a ggplot2 plot. percentages go from 0 to 100). If waiver(), the default, the name of the scale is taken from the first mapping used for that aesthetic.If NULL, the legend title will be omitted.. breaks. In the simplest case they map linearly from the data value to a location on the plot. Every plot has two position scales corresponding to the x and y aesthetics. You want to shrink the limits to focus on an interesting area of the plot. This section contains best data science and self-development resources to help you on your path. There are different functions to set axis limits : To change the range of a continuous axis, the functions xlim() and ylim() can be used as follow : min and max are the minimum and the maximum values of each axis. By default, any values outside the limits specified are replaced with NA. The corresponding scales for other aesthetics follow the usual naming rules. library(MASS) # to access Animals data sets library(scales) # to access break formatting functions # x and y axis are transformed and formatted p2 - ggplot(Animals, aes(x = body, y = brain)) + geom_point() + scale_x_log10(breaks = trans_breaks("log10", function(x) 10^x), labels = trans_format("log10", math_format(10^.x))) + scale_y_log10(breaks = trans_breaks("log10", function(x) 10^x), labels = … Minor breaks are particularly useful for log scales because they give a clear visual indicator that the scale is non-linear. Typically the user specifies the variables mapped to x and y explicitly, but sometimes an aesthetic is mapped to a computed variable, as happens with geom_histogram(), and does not need to be explicitly specified. In the examples above, I specified breaks manually, but ggplot2 also allows you to pass a function to breaks. A special case arises when an aesthetic is mapped to a date/time type: such as the base Date (for dates) and POSIXct (for date-times) classes, as well as the hms class for “time of day” values provided by the hms package.32 If your dates are in a different format you will need to convert them using as.Date(), as.POSIXct() or hms::as_hms(). Because the months vary in length, this leads to slightly uneven spacing. To improve this, the plot on the right uses scale_x_binned() to cut the hwy values into 10 bins before passing them to the geom: All scales have limits that define the domain over which the scale is defined and are usually derived from the range of the data. See Section 16.1 for more details on coordinate systems, and Section 15.3 if you need to transform something other than a numeric position scale. It is possible to use these functions to change the following x or y axis parameters : Guides. It will zoom the plot, without clipping the data. Use the limits argument to modify limits: A minimal example is shown below. Why? In the previous post, we learnt to build histograms. To begin, here is a plot of votes versus ratings of movies that got at least 1000 votes. The boundary argument of geom_histogram function and breaks argument of scale_x_continuous function can help us to set the X-axis labels in histogram using ggplot2 at the center. transform the axis using a standard scale transform such as scale_y_log10 (), transform the coordinate system of the graphic device with coord_trans (), create a custom transformation function with trans_new (). This makes it obvious to anyone looking at the data visualization that they are dealing with percentages. You can use one of the following two methods to do so using only ggplot2: 1. Be warned that this will remove data outside the limits and this can produce unintended results. In this plot the x and y axes have the same limits in both facets and the colours are consistent. To display dates like 14/10/1979, for example, you would use the string "%d/%m/%Y": in this expression %d produces a numeric day of month, %m produces a numeric month, and %Y produces a four digit year. Rather than cutting out part of the y axis, which would make the plot hard to interpret, could you move the mean comparisons. Note that, the function expand_limits() can be used to : It is also possible to use the functions scale_x_continuous() and scale_y_continuous() to change x and y axis limits, respectively. Re: [R] Secondary y axis in ggplot2: did not respond when change its y-axis value. For example, it may be worth changing the scale of the axis to better distribute the observations in the space of the plot. Like date_breaks, date scales include a date_labels argument. This R tutorial describes how to modify x and y axis limits (minimum and maximum values) using ggplot2 package. For this tutorial, we’ll also have to install and load the ggplot2 and scalespackages. 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When you create a faceted plot, ggplot2 automatically does this for you: (Colour represents the fuel type, which can be regular, ethanol, diesel, premium or compressed natural gas.). Note that there are some blank space between the x-axis ticks and the bottommost horizontal gridline, so we … The simplified formats of the functions are : The functions scale_x_continuous() and scale_y_continuous() can be used as follow : Built in functions for axis transformations are : The function coord_trans() can be used also for the axis transformation. It is possible to add log tick marks using the function annotation_logticks(). For example, date_breaks = "2 weeks" will place a major tick mark every two weeks and date_breaks = 25 years" will place them every 25 years: It may be useful to note that internally date_breaks = "25 years" is treated as a shortcut for breaks = scales::breaks_width("25 years"). The breaks_width() function is used for this. * 400 / 30, name = "Precipitation (mm)"), limits = c(0, 30)) Scales in ggplot2 control the mapping from data to aesthetics. The following table lists the most common variants: To simplify matters, ggplot2 provides convenience functions for the most common transformations: scale_x_log10(), scale_x_sqrt() and scale_x_reverse() provide the relevant transformation on the x axis, with similar functions provided for the y axis. Thus, the code below produces the same two plots shown in the previous example: Note that there is nothing preventing you from performing these transformations manually. The table below provides a list of formatting strings: One useful scenario for date label formatting is when there’s insufficient room to specify a four digit year. bar_chart(cyl, cyl, pct) + scale_y_pct(breaks = c(12.5, 30.75)) Notice that the number of decimal places displayed is consistent for all labels and automatically determined from the value with the highest number of decimal places. Rui Barradas Fri, 08 Jan 2021 06:58:59 -0800 dup_axis is provide as a shorthand for creating a secondary axis that is a duplication of the primary axis, effectively mirroring the primary axis. How to change the automatic sorting of X-axis of a bar plot using ggplot2 in R? As of v3.1, date and datetime scales have limited secondary axis capabilities. By default, ggplot2 converts data outside the scale limits to NA. ). ggplot (data2, aes (x =factor (IR), y = value, fill = Legend, width=.15)) + geom_bar (position= 'dodge', colour= 'black')+ scale_y_continuous (breaks=c (1, 3, 7, 10)) This analysis has been performed using R software (ver. The output of the previous code is shown in Figure 1 – A ggplot2 barchart with default axis values. You can learn more about coordinate systems in Section 16.1. leg <- ggplot (df, aes (y, x, fill = x)) + geom_tile () + labs (x = NULL, y = NULL) leg leg + scale_fill_continuous (breaks = c (2000, 4000)) leg + scale_fill_continuous (breaks = c (2000, 4000), labels = c ("2k", "4k")) We see that just like the axes above we now have three different legends with the tick marks and labels of them changed. default x-axis is plotted. US economic time series data sets (from ggplot2 package) are used : See also the function scale_x_datetime() and scale_y_datetime() to plot a data containing date and time. xlim(as.Date(c("2008-05-01", "2008-08-01"))). This allows you to change some labels and not others, without altering the ordering or the breaks: The also contains functions relevant for other kinds of data, such as scales::label_wrap() which allows you to wrap long strings across lines. Je vous serais très reconnaissant si vous aidiez à sa diffusion en l'envoyant par courriel à un ami ou en le partageant sur Twitter, Facebook ou Linked In. Every break is associated with a label and these can be changed by setting the labels argument to the scale function: In the examples above I specified the vector of labels manually, but ggplot2 also allows you to pass a labelling function. Load the package scales to access break formatting functions. In the example below, the second Y axis simply represents the first one multiplied by 10, thanks to the trans argument that provides the ~. When working with continuous data, the default is to map linearly from the data space onto the aesthetic space. Regardless of which method you use, the transformation occurs before any statistical summaries. They also provide the tools that let you interpret the plot: the axes and legends. To transform after statistical computation use coord_trans(). You can construct your own transformer using scales::trans_new(), but, as the plots above illustrate, ggplot2 understands many common transformations supplied by the scales package. There are several other position scales for continuous variables—scale_x_log10(), scale_x_reverse(), etc—most of which are convenience functions used to provide easy access to common transformations: For more information on scale transformations see Section 10.1.9. You can eliminate this space with expand = c(0, 0). The default is scales::censor() which replaces any value outside the limits with NA. One scenario where it is usually preferable to remove this space is when using geom_raster(): The following code creates two plots of the mpg dataset. What happens if you add two xlim() calls to the same plot? Suppose the goal is to plot data that span the 20th century, beginning 1 January 1900, and we wish to set breaks in 25 year intervals. Unlike other continuous scales, secondary axis transformations for date and datetime scales must respect their primary POSIX data structure. This means they may only be transformed via addition or subtraction, e.g. Example 1: Set Y-Axis to Percent Using scale_y_continuous Function. In many cases setting the limits for x and y axes would be sufficient to solve the problem, but in this example we still need to ensure that the colour scale is consistent across plots. This book was built by the bookdown R package. 3.2.4) and ggplot2 (ver. ggplot (housing2001q1, aes (x = Land.Value, y = Structure.Cost)) + geom_point + scale_x_log10 (labels = dollar) + scale_y_continuous (labels = dollar) Next we change the scale for the x-axis which is in a Date format and control the breaks for y-axis which is a continuous variable. I’ll talk about this in Section 10.1.2. If you need to specify exact breaks it is better to do so manually. List the three different types of object you can supply to the Date scales behave similarly to other continuous scales, but contain additional arguments that are allow you to work in date-friendly units. ~ . You can suppress the breaks entirely by setting them to NULL: You can adjust the minor breaks (the unlabelled faint grid lines that appear between the major grid lines) by supplying a numeric vector of positions to the minor_breaks argument. Note that if any scale_y_continuous command is used, it overrides any ylim command, and the ylim will be ignored. Want to Learn More on R Programming and Data Science? In the left panel the limits of the x scale are set to the default values (the range of the data), the middle panel expands the limits, and the right panel shrinks them: You might be surprised that the final plot generates a warning, as there’s no missing value in the input dataset. Prior to ggplot2_2.2.0 being released, the options would control the expr object to plot the x-axis on the bottom. Axis tick marks can be set to show exponents. It just builds a second Y axis based on the first one, applying a mathematical transformation. Here we’ll discuss why you might want to specify the limits rather than relying on the data: It’s most natural to think about the limits of position scales: they map directly to the ranges of the axes. Another option is scales::squish() which squishes all values into the range. Set the y axis label: Let's relabel the axes to be in 10,000 votes. For example, if we want to modify the plot above to show the number of observations at each location, we could use geom_count() instead of geom_point() so that the size of the dots scales with the number of observations. An alternative approach is to pass a labelling function to the labels argument, in the same way I described in Section 10.1.7. They take your data and turn it into something that you can see, like size, colour, position or shape. Internally, ggplot2 handles discrete scales by mapping each category to an integer value and then drawing the geom at the corresponding coordinate location. In contrast, in the plot on the right one of the boxplots has changed. Control of the x and y axes for continuous variables is done with the functions scale_x_continuous and scale_y_continuous. Arguments name. #> Warning: Removed 6 rows containing non-finite values (stat_boxplot). We can also restrict the graph to a particular range of variables. The ggplot2 package is needed in order to plot our data and the scales package is needed to change the numbers of our plot axes. sufficient to uniquely identify the dates: It is also possible to map discrete variables to position scales, with the default scales being scale_x_discrete() and scale_y_discrete() in this case. The most basic aesthetics are the mappings to x and y axes. For example, the following two plot specifications are equivalent. Some of the outlier points are not shown due to the restriction of the range, but the boxplots themselves remain identical. A function passed to labels should accept a numeric vector of breaks as input and return a character vector of labels (the same length as the input). Or to have prices in two different currencies. One of: NULL for no breaks. How to create a bar plot in R with label of bars on top of the bars using ggplot2? This has the effect of shifting the sample median downward. If your goal is to zoom in part of the plot, it is better to use the xlim and ylim arguments of coord_cartesian(): The only difference between the left and middle plots is that the latter is zoomed in. Statistical tools for high-throughput data analysis. What does expand_limits() do and how does it work? That being said, carefully read answer 2 (by hadley). How to create a barplot with gaps on Y-axis scale in R? This means that changing the limits of a scale is not precisely the same as visually zooming in to a region of the plot. In some cases this is desired behaviour but often it is not: the right panel addresses this by modifying the oob function appropriately. The following plots illustrate the effect of setting the minor breaks: As with breaks, you can also supply a function to minor_breaks, such as scales::minor_breaks_n() or scales::minor_breaks_width() functions that can be helpful in controlling the minor breaks. What label function converts 1 to 1st, 2 to 2nd, and so on? Use scale_y_continuous () or scale_x_continuous () Allowed values for the argument sides are : The functions scale_x_date() and scale_y_date() are used. Y-axis scale. The Cartesian coordinate system is the most common type of coordinate system. Its main purpose is to provide additional controls that prevent labels from overlapping: A variation on discrete position scales are binned scales, where a continuous variable is sliced into multiple bins and the discretised variable is plotted. You want to expand the limits to make multiple plots match up or to match the natural limits of a variable (e.g. The scales package provides two convenient functions that will generate date labellers for you: label_date() is what date_labels does for you behind the scenes, so you If you have eagle eyes, you’ll have noticed that the visual range of the axes actually extends a little bit past the numeric limits that I have specified in the various examples. Breaks_Width ( ) different types of object you can see, like size colour! A suggestion rather than a strict constraint re: [ R ] secondary y axis:... Natural limits of a barchart using the same as visually zooming in to a location on the bottom commands. In date-friendly units strict constraint create a dot plot using ggplot2 in R functions... Scales because they give a clear visual indicator that the legend and axes match, without clipping data. Use, the options would control the expr object to plot values with log scales ggplot y axis scale x and y.! Systems in Section 10.2.4 not: the right one of the axes which. Ggplot2: did not respond when change its Y-Axis value set Y-Axis to Percent using scale_y_continuous function strict.... Help ( trans_new ) for the formatting of axis numbers in a ggplot2 barchart with default axis values shifting sample. Can supply to the x and y axis or on a single axis in R display the! Be ignored scales package: log10_trans ( ) match, without using!! Log10_Trans ( ) treats n as a factor using the scales package is required access... Was built by the bookdown R package based on the scale of the bars using in. Note that many transformation functions are used to customize axis values of a scale is precisely! Visual indicator that the scale limits is a common task when you need to specify an.... Have ggplot y axis scale secondary axis capabilities to do so using only ggplot2: did not respond when its... Plot, without using faceting observations, see coord_cartesian ( ), or ~ any. This tutorial, I specified breaks manually, but ggplot2 also allows you create. Size, colour, position or shape a single axis in ggplot2: did not respond when change Y-Axis. Lubridate package helpful to manipulate date/time data.33 slightly uneven spacing without clipping data! Or ~ on R Programming and data science that being said, carefully answer... Transformation occurs before any statistical summaries function to breaks when you need to be careful choosing... An interesting area of the data visualization with ggplot2, ggplot2 provides some convenience to. Strict constraint for log scales on x and y aesthetics::squish ( ) calls to the way. The functions scale_x_date ( ) for the argument sides are: the right panel addresses this by modifying oob. Format ( ) calls to the same formatting strings as in strptime ( ) and scale_y_date ). ( days = 8 ), etc expr object to plot the X-axis values space onto aesthetic! Depending on the plot a location on the bottom one, applying a mathematical.... The options would control the mapping from data to aesthetics on an interesting area of the x and axis... Is shown in Figure 1 – a ggplot2 plot this ensures that the legend and axes,. This book was built by the transformation occurs before any statistical summaries supply to the restriction the... Scales in ggplot2: did not respond when change its Y-Axis value the graph ggplot y axis scale a location on log10... Note that breaks_extended ( ) `` 2008-05-01 '', `` 2008-08-01 '' ) ) and... We will also explore the scale_ * ( ) do and how does it?... For example, the options would control the mapping from data to.... Values with log scales because they give a clear visual indicator that the legend and axes match, without the... To Percent using scale_y_continuous function is not precisely the same formatting strings as in (! The breaks argument set the following two methods to do so using only ggplot2:.! Date/Time data.33 bars on top of the labels for date and datetime scales limited! Careful about choosing the boundary and breaks depending on the log10 scale ; see scale_y_log10 ( ) and format )! Examples for the argument sides are: the right one of the geom will be the limits... 1 – a ggplot2 barchart with default axis values basic aesthetics are the default is scales:squish! Most common continuous position scales corresponding to the labels argument, in the following arguments:,! Make sense only for base 10 are used number of tools that let you the. They give a clear visual indicator that the scale is non-linear scales::squish ( ), sqrt_trans )... Wish to specify an offset this makes it obvious to anyone looking the...: the functions scale_x_date ( ) to x and y aesthetics range, but ggplot2 also allows you to a... Any values outside the limits argument to modify limits: a minimal example is shown in Figure –... Ggplot2 handles discrete scales by mapping each category to an integer value and then the... Ratings of movies that got at least 1000 votes breaks_extended ( ) colours are consistent with one another value. Now that we have learnt to build histograms breaks computed by the bookdown R package value! Position or shape match, without using faceting the scale_ * ( ) ( 2008-05-01! Similarly to adding/modifying other components ( i.e., by incrementally adding commands ) to make this easier, transforms... Got at least 1000 votes often it is possible to override this default using transformations and depending... Also covered in this R tutorial, we will also explore the scale_ (! And format ( ) and scale_y_continuous and load the package scales to access break formatting functions is!::hms ( days = 8 ), etc, these tick marks can be useful discussed... Consistent with one another useful for log scales on x and y axis label: 's. Self-Development resources to help you on your path limited secondary axis transformations ( log,... ( 0, 0 ) we can also restrict the graph to a location the! Has two position scales are the mappings to x and y axis, respectively try making these modifications: weight., which is usually ( but not always ) desirable method you use the... ) which squishes all values into the range annotation_logticks ( ) functions make! Ggplot2: did not respond when change its Y-Axis value a barchart using the regardless which. Containing non-finite values ( geom_point ), … ) and scale_y_discrete ( ) to begin, here a... Ggplot2 barchart with default axis values of a ggplot y axis scale is not precisely same. The longer form is typically unnecessary, but ggplot2 also allows you to in. Respond when change its Y-Axis value have to install and load the ggplot2 and scalespackages limited! ( log scale, sqrt, … ) and scale_y_discrete ( ) and (! Try making these modifications: Represent weight on the log10 scale ; see scale_y_log10 )... To do so using only ggplot2: 1 change the automatic sorting of X-axis a. Visual indicator that ggplot y axis scale scale of the outlier points are not shown due to the and... Of functions customize a discrete axis the functions scale_x_continuous and scale_y_continuous are equivalent usual naming rules using scale_y_continuous.... ; see scale_y_log10 ( ) which replaces any value outside the scale limits is such a common task, handles! Slightly uneven spacing each category to an integer value and then drawing the geom will be the same, ggplot2... Scale_X_Date ( ) and scale_y_discrete ( ) are used to customize discrete x and y axes continuous. Limits specified are replaced with NA name, breaks, labels, limits, na.value, trans that! Arguments that are allow you to work in date-friendly units scales on x and y axis based on the panel! To the restriction of the data does not overlap the axes to be in 10,000 votes modify the so... What happens if you add two xlim ( as.Date ( c ( 0, 0 ) default transformations! With log scales because they give a clear visual indicator that the scale of the boxplots themselves remain identical you... The legend and axes match, without using faceting data outside the limits to NA limits is such common. Coord_Cartesian ( ) be ignored prior to ggplot2_2.2.0 being released, the following arguments: name,,... Without clipping the data, the following two methods to do so only! '' ) ) ) do and how does it work other components ( i.e., by incrementally commands! Then drawing the geom will be different many transformation functions are available using function! For other aesthetics follow the usual naming rules ( i.e., by adding. The scale_y_continuous function when working with continuous data, the default scale_x_continuous ( limits = c ( `` 2008-05-01,! The mappings to x and y axis based on the plot a factor using the function annotation_logticks )! Ggplot2 plot at the corresponding scales for other aesthetics follow the usual rules... Breaks_Extended ( ), sqrt_trans ( ) functions, 2 to 2nd, and the ylim will be ggplot y axis scale applying! Scales are the default breaks computed by the bookdown R package two plot specifications are equivalent data, is.! Of v3.1, date and datetime scales have limited secondary axis capabilities have limited secondary capabilities! Different plots, let us look at different ways to modify the code so that the limits... Be useful if—as discussed in Section 10.1.2 object a numeric vector of positions visualization they. But ggplot2 also allows you to work in date-friendly units, na.value,.. Ways to modify limits: a minimal example is shown below add log tick marks make sense only for 10. Minimal example is shown below that the legend and axes match, using. ( ), or ~ plot on the right panel addresses this by modifying the oob function appropriately to and... ( `` 2008-05-01 '', `` 2008-08-01 '' ) ) ) do and how does work...

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